This guide contains detailed information about how to manage and deploy operating systems by using Microsoft® Windows® Deployment Services. To download the Windows Deployment Services documentation (including a getting started guide, deployment guide, and WDSUTIL command-line syntax), see http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=89381. For information about what is new in each version of Windows Deployment Services, see Windows Deployment Services: What's New (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=140114).
In This Guide
- Configuring Your
- Optimizing Your
- Performing Unattended
- Working with
- How to Perform Common
Note the following information about this documentation:
- This guide applies only to the Windows
Deployment Services server role for Windows Server 2008. It
does not apply to the Windows Deployment Services update (which is
included in the Windows AIK and Windows Server 2003 SP2). For
more information about the Windows Deployment Services update, see
- This guide focuses primarily on the
functionality of the complete installation of Windows Deployment
Services (Deployment Server role service). For information about
configuring and using the Transport Server role service, see
- For information about installing and
configuring this role, see Windows Deployment Services Getting Started Guide.
- To provide feedback on this documentation,
In This Topic
Benefits of Windows Deployment Services
Windows Deployment Services provides the following installation and deployment benefits:
- Reduces the complexity of deployments and the
costs associated with inefficient manual installation
- Enables you to perform network-based
installation of Windows operating systems, including Windows Vista
and Windows Server 2008.
- Deploys Windows images to computers without
- Supports mixed environments that include
Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Microsoft Windows XP,
and Microsoft Windows Server 2003.
- Provides an end-to-end solution for the
deployment of Windows operating systems to client computers and
- Uses standard Windows Server 2008 setup
technologies, including Windows PE, .wim files, and
- Windows Deployment Services MMC
snap-in. A console that provides an easy way to manage images,
computers, and common server settings. You can perform almost all
tasks from the MMC snap-in (you cannot prestage client computers,
but you can use it to set the Auto-Add policy and approve or reject
pending computers). Note that the snap-in is not available when you
are using the Transport Server role service.
- WDSUTIL command-line tool. A tool that
enables you to manage the full functionality of the server. WDSUTIL
also enables you to script common tasks; simple batch files can run
the required commands because no command requires an interactive
Common Usage Scenarios
The following are common scenarios for Windows Deployment Services.
Scenario One: The Small Business
Fabrikam, Inc. is a manufacturer of towels with custom designs. It is a small business with a single office. Monica Brink, Fabrikam's resident IT professional, is responsible for maintaining the IT infrastructure for the company, which consists of 25 client computers running Windows XP SP2 Professional and a single server running Windows Server 2003 with SP2. The server functions as a file print server, Web server, Exchange server, Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, and domain controller. The computers are linked by a 100-MBps Ethernet connection.
Monica is given the task of moving all of the client computers to the Windows Vista operating system and upgrading the single server to Windows Server 2008. Because this takes all of those computers out of action (effectively disabling the office workers), it is important that she makes the switch as quickly as possible.
In the past, she deployed a new operating system one computer at a time. This took her around 45 minutes per computer (almost 19 hours to set up the operating system on all the client computers). For almost three days, Monica was unavailable to work on anything else. Then she would spend almost as much time installing the applications on each computer.
Monica is the only IT professional at Fabrikam, which means that she also must help teach users about the new operating system. Therefore, it is important that she minimizes the amount of time she spends on deployment. To accomplish this, Monica chooses to use Windows Deployment Services because she can:
- Save time by running several installations
- Use a custom install image with preinstalled
- Create an image by using the Windows
Deployment Services Image Capture Wizard.
To begin, Monica does the following:
- Upgrades her server to Windows Server 2008.
- Installs the Windows Deployment Services server role.
- Adds the Boot.wim from the Windows Server 2008 media
(which contains a Windows PE image, Setup.exe, and supporting
- Adds the Install.wim from the Windows Vista media to the
Windows Deployment Services server by using the MMC snap-in.
- Uses the MMC snap-in to create a capture image from the boot
image she added in step 3. This image contains Windows PE and
a wizard that will capture her custom image into a .wim file.
All users at Fabrikam have the same desktop hardware, which was purchased from a single vendor. To deploy on each of these computers a standardized image that contains the operating system and preinstalled applications, Monica does the following:
- Boots a reference computer from the network and installs the
Install.wim onto it, which contains the standard version of Windows
- Installs Microsoft Office, the company's towel-design
application, and the latest drivers from the manufacturer’s
- Uses Sysprep to generalize the operating system.
- Reboots the computer into the capture image.
- Uses the Image Capture Wizard to recapture the operating system
and upload it directly to the Windows Deployment Service
Now, Monica is ready to install the new operating systems. She does not need to migrate any user data, because all of the employees store their user data on a server (rather than on their hard disks). She reboots a client computer and then presses F12 to perform a network boot. This boots her into the Boot.wim file, which guides her through the installation process. She selects the disk partition and image she wants, and then the installation begins. While waiting for the image to be applied to the first computer, Monica boots another computer and starts the same process on that one.
Scenario Two: The Medium-Sized Business
Northwind Traders is a shipping firm with three offices: a central office in Tooth City, and branch offices in the towns of Brushville and Flosston. Ron Gable is one of six IT staff members at Northwind Traders. His responsibility is maintaining the 250 client computers used by the company's employees. These are mostly desktop computers, but the sales force uses laptops for customer presentations. There are 200 computers in the central office in Tooth City, and 25 each in the Brushville and Flosston offices. Each site has an internal network running at 100 MB per second (MBps), and the branch sites are connected to the Tooth City office by a T1 line. Ron has three servers at the Tooth City office and one in each of the branch offices, which are administered remotely.
Ron’s supervisor has tasked him with deploying Windows Vista to the whole company. Previously, this would have involved many expensive trips to Brushville and Flosston, and it would have taken Ron several weeks to complete. He wants to use Windows Deployment Services to deploy Windows Vista remotely; however, company policy dictates that there can be only one DHCP server on the corporate network, and this server is located at the Tooth City office. Remotely deploying images to the 50 computers at the branch offices would cause immense congestion on the connection.
Ron chooses to use Windows Deployment Services because with unattended setup, he can:
- Deploy Windows Vista to computers at the
branch sites without being physically present there.
- Use his existing replication solution to
deliver images to the branch site servers.
- Use the PXE boot referral system to minimize
network traffic between the branch sites and the central
Ron configures the Windows Deployment Services server in the central office to pass on any network boot requests from the branch offices to the local servers, which will supply the boot programs and subsequent images. This minimizes the traffic on the line between the offices.
Ron has two standard operating system configurations — one for the desktop computers and one for laptops that contains the sales presentations and drivers for projectors. Therefore, he builds two images: one with the desktop configuration, and one with the laptop configuration (with no applications). He stores all the user data on one of the servers, so he can deploy Windows Vista without preserving any existing data on the client computers.
Ron uses Windows System Image Manager (Windows SIM) to author two image unattend files — one for the desktop computers and one for the laptops. These files automate the installation, so Ron does not need to be present at each computer during the installation. They also automatically install Microsoft Office and the line-of-business application that the company uses for package tracking. He uses the Windows Deployment Services management tools to associate them with the images.
Next, Ron uses Active Directory® Domain Services (AD DS) to offer all computers a boot program. The computer boots without requiring the users to press F12, and it assigns the correct images to all of the desktops and laptops. He has configured each computer so when it is restarted, it will boot from the network automatically and deploy the appropriate image. After the image is applied to each computer, the computer is automatically joined to the corporate domain and restarted. This time, it is served a different boot program that requires pressing F12 (so that it boots to the hard disk drive and finishes the installation process). This prevents a boot loop, in which the computer would continue booting into Setup. When the installation is completed, the computer is ready for the user to log on.
Scenario Three: The Large Enterprise
Shu Ito is the network architect for Wide World Importers, a large enterprise with 5,000 employees in offices all over the world. The major employee centers are in the United States and Germany, and there are 13 branch offices in other countries. Shu has five servers available to him in the U.S. hub, two in the German hub, and one in each of the branch offices. The servers at the hubs are connected to the corporate Ethernet on 1-GB-per-second (GBps) network interface cards (NICs); the other computers are on 100-MBps NICs. The hubs are connected by T3 lines, and the other sites are connected by T1 lines. All of the servers are hired on two-year leases.
Wide World Importers is replacing the accounting department’s 200 computers with computers running Windows Vista. Shu would also like to deploy a Windows Server 2008 image to any newly leased servers in the U.S. office. The servers in the German office and the branch sites are the responsibility of the local administrators. Currently, deployments at Wide World Importers are done by using RIS, and Shu wants to ensure that the existing computer building processes are preserved with the move to Windows Deployment Services. In addition, it is important that each computer is deployed with an operating system in a language that is appropriate for the users in that country or region.
Shu chooses to use Windows Deployment Services because it enables him to do the following:
- Use appropriate language packs to reduce the
required number of images.
- Manage all of his Windows Deployment Services
servers from a single computer.
- Use multicast deployments to preserve
bandwidth while deploying images to many computers
- Write scripts to automate common management
Shu upgrades his servers to Windows Server 2008, which gives him the ability to initialize and configure the Windows Deployment Services servers remotely, using the management tools. Then he starts creating his images. The vast majority of his deployments will be in English or German, so he creates a Windows Vista image in each language. Other languages will be installed by using external language packs, and applications will be downloaded by using Systems Management Server (SMS). Shu first uploads the images and language packs to the Windows Deployment Services server. Next, he creates the Windows Server 2008 image.
Shu authors unattend files with Windows SIM. He then uses File Replication Service (FRS) to copy the images, language packs, and unattend files to the Windows Deployment Services servers around the world. Of the accounting computers used by Wide World Importers, 150 are in the U.S. office, 30 are in the German office, and the remaining 20 are scattered around the world. Shu uses multicasting to deploy to the 150 computers in the U.S. office simultaneously. To do this, he creates a multicast transmission for the Windows Vista image on his Windows Deployment Services server.
To preserve the state and data on the previous computers, Shu uses the User State Migration Tool (USMT) to save all of the data and user configurations to a shared folder on the primary Windows Deployment Services server. Then he sets up each computer to boot from its local Windows Deployment Services server and to start automated setup by using the unattend files. The computers in the U.S. office will automatically join the multicast transmission, while the computers in the other offices will deploy using unicasting. When the installation is completed, Shu runs a task with USMT to migrate the user data to each computer.
When the lease on a server expires and the server is replaced, Shu can use Windows Deployment Services to deploy his Windows Server 2008 image in the same way that he performed the RIS deployment.
Scenario Four: A Custom Deployment Using Transport Server
John Woods is the server maintenance engineer at the A. Datum Corporation data center. He is responsible for maintaining the 300 servers used by A. Datum Corporation's major customers. One of these customers is Adventure Works.
Adventure Works uses 40 servers to run a career Web site (which is backed by a database) for circus performers. After the release of a popular film about circus life, Adventure Works expects an increase in the use of their Web site. They order 10 additional servers to handle the anticipated traffic.
John wants to deploy operating systems to these servers by using Windows Deployment Services. However, he does not have AD DS running in this environment, so he cannot use the standard Windows Deployment Services solution. Instead, he stores the configuration information for his computers in a SQL Server database. In addition, he wants to partition the disks in a standard configuration and also copy data (some for database servers, some for Web servers) before the unattended setup begins. John chooses to use Windows Deployment Services because he can:
- Write a plug-in that reads configuration data
for the computers from a data store other than AD DS (the data
store is typically a database or a flat file).
- Write scripts (to run in Windows PE)
that perform preinstallation tasks and then call Setup to install
the operating system.
John creates 10 computer accounts in his database for his 10 new servers, and he populates them with the required information. He installs the Windows Deployment Services server role on his server (choosing to install only the Transport Server role service). He then writes a PXE provider (a plug-in that reads information from the database and passes it to Windows Deployment Services) and registers it with the server. He creates a custom boot image that contains Windows PE along with startup scripts to partition the disks and copy the data. Then he uses ImageX to capture one of his existing servers as an install image.
After performing these initial tasks, John connects his servers to the network and boots them. They boot into Windows PE by using the configuration stored in the database. His scripts run to prepare each computer for deployment, and the scripts end by running ImageX to apply the operating system image on each computer.